Friday, July 29, 2011

Jazz Music

Jazz music is a kind of hard to define, since in most cases their theoretical study has been approached from the principles of European classical music and jazz musicologists refuses to be addressed from outside his own universe .Jazz, like many other arts are self-explanatory, and only the experience of hearing can understand.The roots. Jazz is the result of the meeting of traditional African and European music, in a precise scenario, the United States, following the arrival of slaves from the early seventeenth century.In the nineteenth century, the Christian religion (particularly Baptist and Methodist churches) was imposed on many of these slaves, who found in the texts of the Old Testament many analogies that apply to your own situation and the corals form of musical expression.Over time, these psalms dyed African tradition would lead to what is known as GOSPELL, religious song that takes different forms: the preaching of the pastor, vocal groups and large numbers of especially female soloists.Religious music coexisted with the profane: plantation songs, ballads and other forms of popular expression, both African and European, that would feed one of the pillars of African American music, the blues. If we stick to the blues musical criteria is a twelve-bar structure, which uses so-called "blue notes", changes in the third and seventh notes of the scale, but the blues is more, some people translate it by sadness, but is more accurate definition of the blues singers themselves: "Blues is a feeling" is a feeling, a feeling.On the other hand arises in St. Louis around 1870 a piano style that without being much jazz on its dynamic and bouncy, it's RAGTIME, its main feature is the superposition of a regular rhythm played by the left hand and a syncopated rhythm that is doing the right hand, sometimes use "blue notes". Its origin seems that dancing is dancing parody slaves to their masters. Ragtime scores were recorded in "cardboard rolls" for piano and pianola mechanical or representative musician was Scott Joplin.The birth of jazz is lost in this confluence of musical forms and styles of African American culture that occurs in the late nineteenth century: the gospell, blues, ragtime, military marches, dance music .... All European this mixture will create the background against which Jerry Roll Morton would call themselves "inventor of jazz."The characteristics of jazzSuperposition of regular and irregular rhythms, using notes to setback and syncopations. Both consist of a rhythm disturbance, stress is a weak spot of the bar, but while the syncopation continues in the strong, ending setback notes before the next strong.Improvisation. The most common form of classic jazz tunes (pre-free jazz, year 60) is the song form (AABA). Each party usually has 8 measures. Jazz musician to improvise new melodies created, you can adorn the tunes or creating new lines given above the harmonies, which are the basis of the entire composition.Instruments commonly used by jazz musiciansJazz is an African root music with Western elements, this is reflected in the instruments used. Primarily fall into two classes: those who set the pace (rhythm) and playing the melody (melody).Rhythm: Battery. It began very early to use but as a secondary instrument, accompanying soloists. He soon became one of the most important part of any training.Bass. Touched with your fingers. Sometimes replaced by a tuba.Melodic Piano. Already used in ragtime, jazz became the leading instrument.Trumpet. He had an enormous importance to the 40's it was replaced by the saxophone. Before the trumpet-like instrument was used, the cornet.Saxophone. It became fashionable with Coleman Hawkins and went on to become a soloist from the revolution of Charlie Parker.Banjo. It was the most important instrument of American popular music. It was used until the 20's, then fell into disuse replaced by the guitar.Guitar. The item that took a lot of importance from the fifties, rhythm, tonality and harmony above all was a nice touch to jazz as well as strong, Wes Montgomery, Django Reinhardt or now Pat Metheny, George Benson, Earl Klugh ... what atestimonianVibraphone. From the forty the most impressive percussion instruments take the reins as a piano, Lionel Hampton and Gary Burton today.GroupsThe jazz instrumental groups are varied, ranging from a solo instrument to big band to 50 musicians. The most common are:TRIO. Usually formed by two rhythm instruments (drums and bass) and a melody thatusually the piano or guitar. This group became fashionable from the 40's with the beginning of modern jazz.QUARTET. It is perhaps the most characteristic group, is added to the previous one wind instrument, trumpet or saxophone. There will be two in a quintet of wind instruments.BIG BAND. The most common have a rhythm section (piano, bass, drums and guitar) and a wind of wind (saxophones, trumpets and trombones). The most important time of such groups was in the 30's or "swing era".Trends and styles.New Orleans Style. This city was the birthplace of jazz, Jerry Roll Morton was born here, while not invented jazz, he was one of the first musicians who became aware of that music, which mingled so many influences and that started a tradition somewhat faded, was a "new" music. In this first jazz is still clearly visible ties to the parade music and ragtime. Figures are now indisputable cornetist Buddy Bolden and the later King OliverSoon jazz groups began migrating to other U.S. cities like New York or Chicago, and 1917. After the closing of Storyville district (in which over twenty years had found shelter prostitution and all its recreational facilities), this migration was massive.New York and Chicago in the twenties. In the early twenties jazz found refuge in the premises of dealers alcohol. In 1923 the orchestras of King Oliver and Jerry Roll Morton began to record announcing the jazz (post called "traditional") Louis Armstrong would have on its most popular representative.Armstrong, leading his first Hot Five and Hot Seven then with, got the jazz would be a huge leap in its evolution by imposing the expression of the soloist in front of knit collective improvisation that characterizes the style of New Orleans.Another important figure was that of Bix Beiderbecke, a white trumpeter whose original phrasing and untimely death made him a legend of jazz at that timeAlong with this flowering of the soloists, the twenties would know the start of the splendor of the great orchestras, such as Paul Witheman, which would be devoted to the general public with their version of "Rhapsody in Blue" by George Gershwin, the Fletcher Henderson, with soloists such as Rex Stewart on trumpet and Coleman Hawkins on tenor and especially the Duke Ellington OrchestraThe years of the Depression. The economic crash of 1929 severely affected many musicians who were away from the recording studio and the stage, yet the public was demanding shows and orchestras established an unstoppable growth continued knowing who would join, among others, Count Basie, considered by many the best jazz band of all time.Of these bands will be many solo big personality. Figures are unique to this time the pianist Art Tatum and Fats Waller pianist and singer.An important consequence of American economic depression in Europe was the displacement of many artists in search of work. Here the picture they found was very different from what they knew, because if at first their performances were limited to the halls of large and ancient hotel, who saw in jazz a sign of modernity, soon came to the concert hall tucked behind a hobby that they saw the parents of a new music.It was the time of hatching of the "hot clubs", true councils of jazz fans, while, infected by the presence of musicians like Coleman Hawkins and Sidney Bechet, began to wake up numerous musical vocations, thus arose the mythical formation of the Quintet of the Hot Club of France led by guitarist and violinist Reihardt Django Stéphane GrappelliThe swing era. In 1923 was repealed Prohibition in the United States and this, together with the success and popularity of formations of white musicians like Benny Goodman and Glenn Miller helped the Jazz lost, at least in part, the music label of marginalIn the second half of the thirties jazz reached one of its great moments of flowering. It is the style known as "mainstream" (literally translated as mainstream), intermediate period between traditional jazz and modern jazz.The orchestras remained the ideal setting for showcasing the soloists while favoring the emergence of new talent like the saxophonist Lester Young and bassist John Kirby.It was also the time of the emergence of two great singers, Billie Holiday and Ella Fitzgerald, who, along with Sarah Vaughan, to this day reign as goddesses among the voices of jazz.The jazz after World War II. In 1941, the United States officially entered the war and much of the jazz musicians were forced to wear military uniform and to cooperate with military bands or record albums intended for entertainment of the troops. In Europe neither good breathing air to the music that the Nazis called them "degenerate."The influence of war on the lives of musicians and especially the desire for younger innovation contribute to a profound renewal of jazz.Minton's Playhouse The club would be the cradle of a new style, bebop, which takes into Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie to its undisputed leader. Jazz musicians were no longer in show business the right place to express their talent, simplifying things, if Louis Armstrong was at the time of awareness of the soloist in the formations of jazz, represented a power bopper much wider consciousness, it comes back to the origins, to reinterpret and rewrite tradition by exploring new harmonies, the extension of sound recordings and exploit all the possibilities of the rhythms and tempos at once.Among the new musicians Thelonius Monk was one of the first bebop piano to adapt, as would the bass Charles Mingus and Miles Davis on trumpet and many others.The jazz scene in the second half of the forties was a real hotbed, since before the birth of bebop, representatives tried to revive the tradition of New Orleans style, while music afrocuabana installed in New York, took over much of the dance hallsIt was also the time of great triumph for the singer Ella Fitzgerald, with unparalleled technical resources such as "scat" syllables is based on onomatopoeic vocal (and used by Louis Armstrong) that allows for competition instrumental improvisation. Next to it stood out as the most vocal jazz greats Billlie Holiday, with a more intimate and Sarah Vaughan, the flagship of the bebop singer.In addition to classics such as Armstrong, Basie and Ellington and Parker and Gillespie modern, rhythm and blues experiencing a moment of glory with the emergence of figures such as Ray Charles, Etta James and Chuck Berry. It even seemed that something was changing in American politics, coming early for the public radio stations and banishing black labels such as "race records" that had been earmarked for this music.The Fifties: bebop, and rhythm and blues coul. In the relatively brief history of jazz, just a century, changes have occurred on horseback on existing movements, which have not disappeared but have given only the first page of today without being extinguished. What at first seemed "trends" are actually styles that have emerged over time and are forced to live in the large afroameriana music space. This is evident in the fifties.On the one hand some white musicians such as Chet Baker, shunned the side explosive bebop without giving it supposed progress and adopted a more aesthetic appeased with a touch of lyricism and emotion applied to the name of cool jazz.The cool jazz, but it is a broad movement that ranges from the so-called "chamber jazz", for being too smart for some, the Modern Jazz Quartet, to collaborations unrepeatable as Miles Davis and Gil Evans, pianist and composer whose wise arrangements among the best in jazz history, created the ideal atmosphere for intimate style of Davis reached some of its highlights.In addition to Max Roach, the Jazz Messengers and saxophonist Sonny Rollins formations or the bassist Charles Mingus, bebop continued its evolution, enriched every day with new discoveries that laid the foundation of modern jazz. Meanwhile, the rhythm and blues, the most popular African American music had achieved an unstoppable development thanks to the likes of Ray Charles, Louis Jordan, Fats Domino, Chuck Berry or.In the strictly jazz, bebop musicians emerged from the funk started to grow, imbued with echoes of blues and gospell, which stand out as Lou Bennett organists, guitarists, horn players like Grant Green and Donald Byrd. Their music was dense and torrid, with that same spirit of mystic trance gospell inherited from the soul and make his own.The sixties: the "New Thing" and the soul. In the U.S. the sixties saw the African American political and social movements were increasingly larger with leaders like Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, and achieved the objective of achieving civil rights racism which until then had been denied.In this context came the first record label run by a man of color, Tamla Motown, responsible for launching numerous stars of rhythm and blues and soul with a great capacity for market penetration, in the case of Marvin Gaye, Aretha Franklin, Sam Cooke and James Brown in particular, nicknamed "Godfather of Soul" (Godfather of Soul), which transform as no one knew the essence of mystical experience in secular gospell, turning their concerts into action almost religious fervor.Meanwhile the British pop of the Rolling Stones or EricClapton discovered the blues and circulated among the European public through their own versions, often quite distant from the original, but which served to disseminate some of the great masters of the blues .So while part of African American music reached a dimension that has never been known, the jazz would be the advent of "New Thing", literally "new thing" and free jazz, a radical alteration of the principles that had governed previous musical improvisation. Musicians such as Ornette Coleman or Cecil Taylor led the revolutionary movement of dyes protest that hit the wall of incomprehension. Music promoted outside the servility to the white audience, which ironically was the only one paying attention to them, while the African-American audience was decanted into other styles. Even today the death throes of free jazz have resonance in Europe than in United StatesMuch of the free jazz musicians, great musicians, courts gradually leaving the impasse that led them to a situation of widespread musical misunderstanding.In short, the end of the sixties was a time of incredible proliferation of styles and genres and jazz aficionado had a very wide range of offers, from the traditionalism of Armstrong at the forefront of Cecil Taylor or Charles Mingus, from by the orchestras of Count Basie and Duke Ellington, the various formations of Dizzy Gillespie, the Jazz Messengers, the blues of BB King, soul or rhythm and bluesThe seventies and the spirit of fusion. In the world of music, everything had changed: the diffusion label, the type of concert, radio, television ... nothing was the same, and music, like other arts, like film, is also a business. Jimi Hendrix and others had ventured into the world of rock music with an African accent power and had achieved remarkable success. Rock, progressive music, pop and other similar labels sold, the Jazz could not stay out so some genius came up with the concept of "fusion", which could be a bit of everythingAs in the years of bebop, the controversies will arise again and many considered to Miles Davis and his jazz-rock or fusion jazz outside or at most a minor genre.The seventies would disappear to some of the jazz greats of all time as Armstrong and Ellington and many lacked time to herald the demise of all the music of jazz. The historic youth disappeared and were sold for a few dollars to the almighty rock. The reality, however, was very different African-American music was not dead, not just jazz, blues and rhythm and blues continued on their way, but did not stop the emergence of new forms and new musicians, such as "salsa" New Yorker, heir to the tradition of the first Afro-Cuban Latin musicians arrived in New York and steeped in influences from jazz and soul, or funk musicians like George Clinton.The enormous heat interpretive musicians led to a dramatic evolution in sounds, were added not only new instruments but also the techniques progressed rapidly, include Jaco Pastorius who transformed the electric bass, and Joe Zawinul use keyboards.The seventies were not meant, much less the decline of jazz and Afro-American music in general, but a new transition.Back to basics and new perspectives. The Eighties meant in some way a process of clarification, Miles Davis returned to the stage after a long absence surrounded by young musicians. Jazz received institutional support: even in Spain the government subsidizing tours and concerts in France is awarded to musicians and the United States, before having a saxophonist president, Ronald Reagan and Miles Davis invited to the White House.Jazz remained small but had a consolidated public. Began to emerge a new generation of musicians who followed different paths, one on the trail of the always desired and the others leading the way back to the origins. Among the first of Weather Report with Joe Zawinul and Omar Hakim, the indefatigable John McLaughlin Mahavishnu Orchestra and the ever witty and Lester Bowie. Among those who opted for the origins of the protagonist is Wynton Marsalis, technically impeccable, appearance aroused the most diverse comments.But far from ponds or repeated patterns in jazz today, mostly with music from the decade of 60, 70 and 80 have re-emerged and diversified its status, so that we can enjoy a jazz that has very good health, people Pat Metheny, Gary Burton, Larry Corryell, Larry Carlton, Spyro Gyra, Steps Ahead, Grover Washington ill-fated, Herbie Hancock, Chick Corea, Cuck Loeb, Diana Krall, Michael Camilo ,.... and a lot of artists attest it.The nineties have confirmed those numerous stray currents. Jazz is not only not dead but perhaps is more present than ever in music today. The rise of rap, the recovery of bebop, the "revival" of soul, funk commercial success and its derivatives, the emergence of new-style bands from New Orleans, now the blues or even success in the clubs of "acid jazz" are symptoms of good health of the music when the century-old round

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